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iMarkA.SmithsGuidetoSafeCommonSenseOff-RoadDriving iiWHENGOINGOFF-ROADTREADLIGHTLYThemajorpointsotheTreadLightlyEducationProgramcanbeeasilysummarizedTravelandrecreatewithminimumimpactRespectthewildlieenvironmentandrightsoothersEducateyourselplanandpreparebeoreyougoAlloworutureuseotheoutdoorsleaveitbetterthanyouounditDiscovertherewardsoresponsiblerecreationTreadLightlyisanot-or-proftorganizationdedicatedtoprotectingthegreatoutdoorsthrougheducation.YourhelpthroughmembershipcontributionsenablesTreadLightlytocontinueitseducationalmission.Becomeamembertoday.TreadLightly29824thStreet325OgdenUT84401PH800-966-9900FX801-621-8633Websitewww.treadlightly.orgMarkA.SmithOf-RoadingInc.andJeepJamboreeUSAstronglyadheretotheprinciplesoTreadLightly 1Theentirecontentsofthisbookarecopyrightedandmaynotberepro-ducedinwholeorinpartorinanyformwhatsoeverwithouttheconsentofthepublisher.MarkA.SmithOff-RoadingInc.ReprintedJanuary2012Over80000copiesprinted.ISBNNo.0-9658763-3-0 2INDEXIntroduction........................................................................4-5BePrepared...........................................................................6Saety......................................................................................7HowToPrepareYourVehicle............................................8-9Lockers....................................................................................9ThumbsUp...........................................................................10LookinAllDirections..........................................................11Of-RoadDrivingTechniques............................................12HILLSHills........................................................................................13AvoidDrivingSideHill..........................................................14GoingUpASteepHill.........................................................15GoingDownASteepHill...................................................16KnowYourAngleoApproachandDeparture..............17DontHighCenter..............................................................18LosingTraction....................................................................19ROUGHCOUNTRYDRIVINGRocks..............................................................................20-21Sand.....................................................................................22SnowIceDustMeadows.................................................23Mud......................................................................................24Ruts..................................................................................25-27CrossingStreams...........................................................28-30WaterDepth.......................................................................31CrossingALogOrTree.......................................................32ThreePointTurns............................................................33-34RoughCountryDrivingSummary.....................................35TIRESTiresTirePressure............................................................36-37GoodyearTires...............................................................38-39 3INDEXWINCHINGSTRAPPINGWinching..............................................................................40BasicSimpleWinching.......................................................41WinchingAccessories.........................................................42UsingYourWinch............................................................43-44LargeTreeAcrossTheRoad...............................................45GettingBackOnTheRoad................................................46AlwaysUseATreeStrap......................................................47ProperWayToConnectTwoStrapsTogether..................48SnatchumStrap..............................................................48-49WhyWeDontUseTowStrapsWithHooks........................50WinchingSummary........................................................51-52WhatToTakeForOf-HighwayTrips...................................53RoadCourtesy.....................................................................54HelpulHints.........................................................................55Of-HighwayRoadDrivingTipsSummary....................56-57TheJeepJamboreeUSAStory.....................................58-60TrailRatings......................................................................61-62TrainingSpecialForces-U.S.Army...............................63-64LosAngelesCountySherifsTraining................................65ExpedicionDeLasAmericas........................................66-72SpecializedTraining............................................................73Sponsors...............................................................................74JeepJamboreeContactInormation..............................75AbouttheAuthor...........................................................76-77 4INTRODUCTIONThisguiderefectsmyviewsandincludestipsandtechniqueslearnedrommorethanty-veyearsoextensiveo-roaddrivingincludingexpeditionsandsomeothetoughestour-wheeldrivetrailsintheworld.Awidevarietyoo-roadsituationsandtechniquesareaddressedinthisguideincludingwhattodoinroughterrainhowtomakewatercrossingsproperhillclimbingtechniquesandeectivewinchingmethods.Belowaresomeotheour-wheelingbasicswhicharecoveredingreaterdetailelsewhereinthisbook.Theyareincludedhereasaquickreminderaswell.Mostanyonecansuccessullydriveo-roadbysimplyollowingbasicguidelinesandusingcommonsense.OnceyouhavelearnedthebasicsallittakesispracticeALWAYSwearyourseatbelts.NEVERdrinkalcoholicbeveragesanddrive.Donotstanduporallowpassengerstostandupinamovingvehicle.Notallour-wheeldrivevehiclesorsportutilityvehiclesSUVsaredesignedoro-roaduse.KNOWYOURVEHICLEITSLIMITATIONSANDYOUROWN.Each4WDsituationpresentsachallenge.Analyzeandexaminetheobstaclebeoreattemptingadiicultsituation.Mostrougho-roaddrivingisdoneatveryslowspeedsusingrstgearandlowrange.Whencrawlingoverrocksspeedandpowerarenotnecessary.Alwaysdriveasslowlyaspossible.IyouhaveanautomatictransmissiongeardowntoyourD1andD2rangeand4WDLow.Letthevehiclecrawlandidlewhilegoingoverobstacles.Iyouseeoreelthatyouaregoingtoneedour-wheeldriveputthevehicleinto4WDbeoreyouneedit.Most4WDvehiclesrequireaullstoptogointolowrange.Knowyourvehicleandhowtoshitinandouto4Land4H.Jeepvehiclesmustbeinneutralinordertoshitthetransercaseintolowrange. 5INTRODUCTIONcontinuedRememberspeedandpowerarenotrequired.Thelowgearsandlowspeedothevehicleidlingwillgenerallygetyouovertheobstaclealthoughitmaysometimesbenecessarytoapplyalittlethrottlewhengoinguphilloralittlebrakewhengoingdownhill.Anothertechniqueweteachorrougho-roaddrivingwithamanualtransmissionistoDRIVEWITHOUTTHECLUTCHYoustartandstopthevehicleingearwithbotheetonthefoor.USEFIRSTGEARANDLOWRANGEturnthekeytostartanddonotusethethrottle.Justletthevehiclestartcrawling-whichitwilldoautomaticallywiththestarter.Theenginewillstartupandidleovertheobstacles.Ithevehiclestallsdonotusetheclutchjustusethestarteragain.Insomecasesitmaybenecessarytoapplyalittlethrottle.Youhavetotalvehiclecontrolwithouttheclutch.NOTESomevehiclesmayrequireamanualdisconnectinordertodrivewithouttheclutch.Pleasereertoyourownersmanualordisconnectinormation.Youcandrivethiswayalldayandneverburnuptheclutchandyouwillnothurtthevehicledrivinginthismanner.Whendrivingwithouttheclutchinroughterrainyouhavetotalvehiclecontrol.AnexpressionweuseontheRubiconTrailisGITCHERDAMFUTOFFDAKLUTCH.Manytimeswhenpeopledriveinroughcountrycrossingoverlogsrocksorotherobstaclestheyhaveatendencytoridetheclutch.Whenthevehiclestallstheypushintheclutchandthevehiclewillrollbackcausingthemtogetstuckorgetintrouble.Ithevehiclestallsinacriticalspotdonotdepresstheclutchthestarterwillgenerallypullyouoverthespot.Thereisanexceptiontotheabovetechniqueithevehicleisinaverytightbindorupagainstalargerockandithevehiclecannotmoveorwardthroughuseothestarterthenusetheclutchtoavoidburningupthestarter.Trytopracticethistechniquebeoregoingo-road.Startandstopyourvehicleseveraltimesusingthekeyonly-noclutch-nobrake-nothrottle-WITHBOTHFEETFLATONTHEFLOOR.Practicethisonfatground 6KNOWYOURLIMITSANDTHEVEHICLESLIMITSALWAYSTREADLIGHTLYBEPREPARED 7SAFETYEveryoneinthevehicleshouldalwayshaveaseatbeltanduseit.DONOTALLOWANYONETOSTANDWHILETHEVEHICLEISMOVING.Standinginthevehicleandholdingontotherollbarcanbeverydangerous.Ithevehiclehitsarockorlogitcancatapultapersoncompletelyoutothevehicle.Stayclearotowstrapsandcableswhenwinching.Sottopvehiclesshouldhavearollbar.Besureyourvehicleandtiresareingoodcondition.Tellsomeonewhereyouaregoingandwhenyouexpecttobeback.Travelwithatleastoneothervehicle.CARRYATLEASTMINIMALSURVIVALGEARATALLTIMES.Knowyourlimitsandthevehicleslimits-everyvehiclewillreactdiferentlyinroughconditions.DonotshowofAlcoholanddrivingarenotcompatible.KEEPYOURARMSANDLEGSINSIDEOFTHEVEHICLEATALLTIMES.Neverthrowcigarettebuttsoutthevehiclebecauseopotentialredanger.Whengoingof-roadindryconditionsbecareulostartingareindrygrassromtheintenseheatoyourvehiclescatalyticconverter. 8HOWTOPREPAREYOURVEHICLEFORROUGHOFF-HIGHWAYTRAILSTheRubiconJeepiscapableo10ratedtrailswithoutanymodications.TOWHOOKS-Allvehiclesshouldhavetowhooksontherontandtherear.Theyshouldberatedataminimumo20000andshouldbeproperlymountedtotherameNEVERonbodypanelsbumpersorsuspensionpartswithhighstrengthboltsandreinorcingbackingplates.Neverweldhooksinplaceastheheatmaycrystallizethemetalwhichmaycauseailureoeitherthehookorotheparttowhichitisattached.Atowhookbreakingoattheendoatowstraphasasmuchmomentumasacannonballandhasbeenknowntogocompletelythroughapickuptrucktailgate.Pleasereertothemanuacturerorinstallationguidelinesonpropertowhookinstallation.SKIDPLATES-Skidplatesshouldbebolt-mountedonallvehiclestoprotecttheunderbodycomponents.AllJeepvehiclesequippedwiththeactoryo-roadpackagehaveallotheseitemsincludedandareanexcellentchoiceorgoingo-road.ROCKRAILS-Fortrailsrated4orhigherona1-10scale10beingthe.mostdiicultwerecommendRockRails.WedonotrecommendNerBarsastheydecreasetheclearanceothevehicle.RockRailsaredesignedtoprotecttherockerpanelsromrocksstumpsorlogs.Formoreinormationpleaseseepage79-80.ANTI-SWAYBARDISCONNECT-JeepWranglerYJownersshouldconsiderdisconnectingtheanti-swaybarwhengoingondiiculttrails.Thisallowsmoreront-axlefexibilityorbettertractionbutBESURETORECONNECTITwhengoingbackonthehighwayasthismodicationwillaectsteeringstability.Areputable4WDaccessoryshopwillhavethedisconnectpinoryouranti-swaybar.Itisnotnecessarytodisconnecttheanti-swaybarontheJeepWranglerTJ. 9HOWTOPREPAREYOURVEHICLEFORROUGHOFF-HIGHWAYTRAILScontinuedTIRES-Largertiresshouldbeaconsideration.Itispossibletoupgradetoa30x9.50R15or31x10.50R15onGrandCherokeesCherokeesandWranglers.Thiswillprovidealittlemoregroundclearance.WeusestockJeepsontheRubiconTrailequippedwithGoodyearMTR31tireswithacloadrange.TheGoodyearMTRisanexcellentchoice.Thecloadrangegivesyoustrongersidewallsandcouldpreventablowoutorfat.TheOEsizeonthe2003JeepRubiconisLT24575R16aGoodyearWranglerMTRinloadrangeE.ManynewerJeepCherokeemodelscomewith16tires-P22575R16P24570R16P23565R17andP23570R16.UpgradestoloadrangesoCDorEarepossible.Theloadandcoldinfationpressureimposedontherimandwheelmustnotexceedtherimandwheelmanuacturersrecommendationeventhoughthetiremaybeapprovedorahigherloadandmaximumcoldinfationpressure.LIFTKITS-Liftkitsarenotnecessaryhowevera1to2litontheWranglerhasworkedoutsatisactorilyorextremelyroughtrailssuchastheRubiconTrail.BATTERY-Yourbatteryshouldbesecurelymounted.Anunsecuredbatterycouldalloverdamagingyourbatteryorengine.LOCKERS-RubiconModels.Readownersmanualorproperuseandhowtoengageanddisengage.Itisnotnecessarytolockeitherrontorrearaxleswhenyougointo4low.Ineededgenerallylockingonlytherearaxlewillgetyouoverthemostsevereobstacles.Usethefrontlockeronlyinextremeconditionsanddisengageateryouareovertheobstacle.Donotrunconstantlywiththerontlockersengagedassteeringwillbecomediicultanddamagemayresult. 10THUMBSUPIyoudonthavepowersteeringdrivewithyourthumbsupandoutothesteeringwheel.Iyourtirehitsalargerockorlogitwillcausethesteeringwheeltospinoutoyourhands.Iyourthumbsaredownthesteeringwheelspokescaninjureandevenbreakthem.HelpulhintOteninof-highwaysituationsthedriverisnotawareothedirectiontheirtiresarepointed.Thiscanbecorrectedbyplacingawhitedotorpieceotapeontopothesteeringwheelwhenthewheelsarepointedstraightahead. 11LOOKINALLDIRECTIONSLookoveryourhoodandmemorizewhatisaheadofyouonthetrail.Proceedslowlytocrawloverobstacles.Ifyouputyourheadoutofyourvehicleandarewatchingyourleftfronttirethereisagoodchanceyouwillgettherightfronttireintrouble.NOYES 12OFF-ROADDRIVINGTECHNIQUESINROUGHTERRAINAutomaticTransmissionUselowgearandlowrange.Isuggestthetwo-ooteddrivingmethod-letootonthebrakeandrightootonthethrottle.Featherbothlightlytocontrolyourspeed.Ithevehicleslowsdownyoumayhavetoapplyalittlemorethrottle.Iitspeedsupyoumayhavetoapplyalittlebrake.SpeedandpowerarenottheanswerGOSLOW-theslowerthebetter.ManualTransmissionDrivingWithoutTheClutchUselowgearandlowrange.Iyourvehiclehaslockinghubsbesuretheyareengaged.StartthevehicleingearWITHOUTTHECLUTCH.KEEPBOTHFEETONTHEFLOOR.TostartTurnthekey.Donotusetheclutchandapplyonlyslightthrottleasneeded.Driveslowlyandcrawlovertherocksandroughterrain.Idleoverroughspots-slightthrottleonlyasneeded.KEEPYOURFOOTOFFOFTHECLUTCH.IyoustarttosliporspinapplyalittlemorethrottleandTURNTHESTEERINGWHEEL12TURNBACKANDFORTH.Thiswillotenprovideanewgrip.Theimportantthingistokeepthevehiclemoving.Keepyourootofotheclutch.CrawloverobstaclesTHESLOWERTHEBETTER.Donotspinyourwheels.Tostopjustturnthekeyof-NOCLUTCHORBRAKEISNECESSARY.Itheenginestallsgoingoveraroughspotdonotusetheclutchorbrake.Simplyturnthekeyagainandapplyveryslightthrottleineeded.NOTEAJeepvehiclecanbestartedthiswaywithaone-oothighobstaclelikeastairwayrightagainsttherontwheels.Inlowgearratiosyoucanstartthevehiclethiswaygoinguphillatuptoa45degreeangle.Usingthismethodyouhavetotalvehiclecontrolandwillnotburnupyourclutchorharmthestarter.EXCEPTIONThereisanexceptiontotheabovetechniqueithevehicleisinaverytightbindorupagainstalargerockorobstacleandcannotmoveorwardthroughuseothestarterthenusetheclutchtoavoidburningupthestarter. 13HILLSHillscausemanyour-wheelersseriousproblems.IthehillisverysteepandyoudonteelcondentthatyouoryourvehiclecanmakeitupDONOTATTEMPTITWhengoingupordownahillalwaystrytogostraightupordown.NEVERdriveahillatanangleasthiscouldcausethevehicletorollover.Mostvehicleswillclimbsmallsteepinclinesbutnotlongsteephills.Speedandpowerarenotnecessarilytheanswer.KEEPYOURWHEELSONTHEGROUNDATALLTIMES.Oneothebiggestmisconceptionsinour-wheelingtodayiscausedbyadvertisementsthatshowthevehiclesfyingthroughtheair.ThisisNOTtheproperorsaewaytodrive.Mostothevehiclesusedinmakingtheseadvertisementsarehauledtothejunkyardaterlming.IFAHILLISTOOSTEEPDONOTATTEMPTIT 14AVOIDDRIVINGSIDEHILLIfatallpossibleavoiddrivingsidehill.IfyoumustKNOWYOURVEHICLESLIMITATIONSANDCENTEROFGRAVITY. 15GOINGUPASTEEPHILLRemembertherearemanythingsthatwillafectgoingupahill.TiresandthetypeotreadAnallterraintirewithgoodtreadwilloferyouthebesttraction.SoilconditionsDampsoilgivesyouthebesttraction.Loosedrysoilorsandmaycauseaspinout.Wetormuddysoilcanbethemostdificultanddangerousandmaycauseyoutolosecontrol.Knowyourlimitationsandthevehicleslimitations.Besureyouknowwhatisontheothersideoahillbeoregoingupandover.Itisotenagoodideatoscoutthehillscrestonootbeoreattemptingtodriveoverit.Applymorepowerasyoustartupahill.Itherontendoyourvehiclebeginstochatterrontendjumpingupanddownbackofthethrottleslightlytokeepallourwheelsontheground.Inotyoumaycausevehicledamage.Easeuponpowerasyouapproachthetop.Iyoustallputyourvehicleintoreverseandbackstraightdownthehill.Avoidturningasyoucouldlosecontrolandpossiblycausethevehicletorollover. 16GOINGDOWNASTEEPHILLDONOTUSEYOURCLUTCHWHENGOINGDOWNASTEEPORROCKYHILLAlwaysusethevehiclescompression.Inavehiclewithamanualtransmissionusethelowestgearsandcompression.Donotrideyourclutch.Pumpthebrakeslightlyifnecessary.Inanautomaticuselowrangeandthelowestdrivesetting.Withautomatictransmissionsfeatheryourbrakeslightly.Ifyoustarttoslideturninthedirectionoftheslideasonsnoworice.IfyouhaveABSanti-lockbrakingsystemdonotpumpthebrakes. 17KNOWYOURANGLEOFAPPROACHANDDEPARTUREWhencrossingaditchknowyourangleoapproachanddeparture.Vehiclelengthandtypewillafectangleoapproachanddeparture. 18DONTHIGHCENTERWhengoingoverlargerocksahilloramoundofdirtbecarefulnottohighcenter.Ifyougethighcenteredtryputtingrocksoranythingelseavailableunderthetiresandthengentlyrockthevehiclewhileturningthewheelsbackandforth.Insomeconditionsyoumayrequireajacktofreeyourself. 19LOSINGTRACTIONIfyoustarttolosetractioninsandmudorsnowturnyoursteeringwheelbackandforthslowly.Thiswillgenerallyallowthetirestogetafreshgripandpullyouthrough.IfyoulosecompletetractionSTOPDonotspinyourwheelsasthiswillusuallydigyouindeeper.Rememberspeedandpowerarenottheanswer.Keepforwardmomentumatasteadypace.Ifyourtiresstarttospinaslightbrakeapplicationwithyourleftfootwhilemaintainingthrottlepressurewillstopwheelspinandmaintainforwardmomentum.Donotstraddle 20rocks.Avehiclewith6ofgroundclearancewillnotgooveran8rock.IfyouhearrocksorROCKSNOYESYESotherobstaclesscrapingagainstyourvehiclesrockrailsorskidplatesdontpanic.Theseaccessoriesaredoingtheirjobprotectingyourvehicle.Idealspeedforrockcrawlingisonetothreemilesperhour.Becarefulnottohighcenter 21ROCKScontinuedRubiconTrailCaliforniaProperdrivingtechniques.Putyourtiresontopoftherocksasthesephotosdemonstrate.Donotstraddlelargerocks.RubiconTrailCalifornia 22SANDSandcanvaryindierentpartsothecountry.InFloridayoucandriveor300milesinhardsandandnothaveanyproblems.InthedesertinSouthernCaliorniayouwouldhavetodefateyourtiresto20Ibs.-.Generallytheadditionalspeedandpoweroeredby4WDhighareappropriateordrivinginsand.Sometimeshoweverlowrangeanddrivewillworkmoreeicientlyinsandandwillprovidemoretorqueincertainsituations.Youmayneedtoexperimentwithbothhighandlowrangedependingonthesuraceconditionsothesandyouaredrivingon.Iyougetstuckdigoutaroundthewheels.Useyourfoormatsunderthewheelsortraction.Iwaterisavailablewetthesandinrontothewheels-thiswillprovidearmerbase.Inecessaryairdownto8or10pounds.Rockbackandorthandsidewaysandoncemovingorwardjustkeepagoodsteadyorwardmotion-dontspinyourwheelsasyouwillonlymakeitworse.Useyourhubcabsasashovelineeded.Whendrivinginsanddunesbesureyourvehiclehasafagontheradioantennaoramast.Thisallowsour-wheelersontheothersideoadunetoknowwhereyouare.NoteWhenevergoingo-roadbesurethatyouknowwhereyouaregoinganddonttravelbyyoursel.Tellsomeonewhereyouaregoingandwhenyouexpecttobeback.SandMountainNevada 23SNOWANDICEAlwaysusecautionwhendrivinginsnowandonice.MakesurethatyouhavegoodmudandsnoworAllTerrainAltires.Whenyouhavetoslowdownorstoppumpyourbrakeslightly.Donotslamonyourbrakesasthismaycauseyoutoskid.Iyoustarttoslideturnintothedirectionotheslideandbrakelightly.Iyougetstuckinsnowormuddonotracethemotorandspinthewheelsasyouwillprobablydigadeeperhole.Nevertravelover25milesperhourinsnoworiceconditions.Beverycautiousoblackice.IfyouhaveABSbrakesapplygentlepressure.DonotpumpWhenmovingthroughsnoworoverobstaclesiyouhaveanyorwardmotionatallregardlessohowslowitiskeepthevehiclemoving.Iyoustarttogetstuckturnyourwheelsbackandorth.Thiswilltranserpowertothewheelswhereyouneedthetraction.Makesuretokeepyourorwardmomentum.Iyoudogetstuckstopandanalyzeyoursituation.Iyouhavetoputchainsonyour4WDvehiclechaintherontwheels.Iyougetstuckdigoutaroundthetiresandplaceyourfoormatsinrontothetires.Gentlyrockthevehiclebackandorthandturnthesteeringwheelromsidetosideuntilyouhavetraction.Decreasetirepressuresto10to20poundsinecessaryorgreatertraction.BlackIce-Thisoccurswhenrainormeltingsnowreezesandormsathininvisiblelayeroiceoverthepavementcreatingadangerousicycondition.DUSTWhendrivingondustyroadsrollupyourwindowsandturnontheairconditioneroran.Thiswillhelppressurizethecabandhelpkeepthedustout.Besurethereshairventisclosed.MEADOWSOnlydrivethroughmeadowsonestablishedroadsortrails.Respectanddonotabusepublicorprivatelands. 24MUDBeoreenteringamudholeanalyzethesituation.HowdeepisitHowlongisitArethereanyhiddenobstaclesAlwayskeeporwardmomentumeveniyouareonlycrawling.Turningthewheelsbackandorthotengivesthetiresanewgrip.Iyoudogetstucktrybackingupandthengoingorwardagain.Iyoucantgoorwardbackupandndanotherwayaround.Useasticktocheckthedepthoamudhole.Itherearentanytiretracksgoingouttheothersidethinkagainbeoregoingintoit.Unlessyouaremovingorwarddontspinyourtires.Theywilljustdigdeeper.Iyougetstuckdigoutaroundyourtiresthenplacerockslogsorotherrmmaterialunderneathortraction.ImportantCheckdiferentialstransmissiontransercaseandbrakesatercrossingdeepmudorwater.Mudmayalsopackinthewheelaterdrivingindeepstickymud.Thismaycausevibrationsonthehighway.Useapressurehosetowashthemudoutothewheels. 25RUTSIfyouareinadeeprutinmudorsnowandcantgetoutdigtwosmalltrenchesata45degreeangleeitherrightorleftandplacethematerialsremovedintotherut.Driveforwardslowlyandthevehicleshoulddriveupandoutoftherut.Iftherutsaretoodeeptodriveinmovetotheleftorrightanddriveparalleltotheexistingruts. 26RUTScontinuedIyoufndyourselinasituationwhereyoumusttraversearut....Goslowandstraddletherutwhenpossible.Itherutbecomestoowideeaseintoitkeepingyourvehiclelevelandrideonthetireedgeoreventhesidewallothetire.Judgethetrailoveryourhoodorhaveyourpassengeroutsideothevehicleguideyou.Remembertotrytokeepcenteredintherutandkeepthevehicleaslevelaspossible. 27RUTScontinuedKeepyourvehiclelevelwhiledrivingruts 28CROSSINGSTREAMSBeextremelycautiousoastmovingwaterandrememberthatevenclearwatercanbeverydeceiving.Beextracautiousomuddywater.Iyoucantseethebottomandyoudontknowhowdeepitisyouoryourpassengershouldcrossthestreambyootrstoruseasticktocheckthedepthbeorecrossingitinyourvehicle.Onceagainbecautiousoastmovingwater.Beoreattemptingtogointowateraboveyourvehiclesaxlescheckorthelocationoyourairintake.Somevehicleshavetheseintakeslocatedbythebumper.Crossingwaterinavehiclesoequippedmayresultinseveredamageromwaterbeingdrawnintotheengine.Disconnectairintakeindeepwater.Ithewaterlevelisuptoyourheadlightstakeyourseatbeltsoandopenthewindowsoraneasyescapeinecessary.Iyouaregoingtocrossdeepwaterdonotletyoursparkplugsordistributorgetwet.Goslow.Placeajacketorapieceocanvasorcardboardinrontotheradiatortodefectwater.IyourenginestallsindeepwaterDONOTtrytorestartitasyoumaycauseseriousdamagetoyourvehicle.Whencrossinggoslow.Donotmakeawaveinrontothevehicle.Crossstreamsindesignatedareasonly-avoidbreakingdownbankswhenenteringorleavingastream.Startdownstreamromwhereyouwouldliketocross.DriveataslightangleUPintothecurrent.Ithereisastrongcurrentitwillmovethevehicledownstream.Thiswilltakeyoutoyourdesiredpointoexit.Whilecrossingstreamswatchorlargesubmergedrocksorobstacles. 29CROSSINGSTREAMScontinuedAFTERBEINGINMUDORDEEPWATERITISAGOODIDEATOCHECKYOURDIFFERENTIALSANDTRANSFERCASEFORWATERORMUD.AFTERDRIVINGINWATERTESTYOURBRAKES.WETBRAKESFEELANDWORKLIKENOBRAKES.INORDERTODRYYOURBRAKESSIMPLYRIDETHEBRAKEPEDALLIGHTLYWHILETHEVEHICLEISMOVING. 30CROSSINGSTREAMScontinuedWhencrossinggoslow.Donotmakeawaveinfrontofthevehicle.ThisJeepmaybemovingaIittletooquickly. 31WATERDEPTHUptoaxles-GenerallyOKBumperdepth-UsecautioncheckairintakeBottomoheadlights-UsecautionHeadlights-Avoidiatallpossiblerememberseatbeltsofwindowsopen.Thiswillmakeoraneasyescaperomthevehicleinanemergency.Iyoustalldonotattempttostartorruntheengineindeepwaterorwherewatercanentertheairintake.CROSSSTREAMSONLYINAPPROVEDANDDESIGNATEDAREAS 32CROSSINGALOGORTREEWhenyouencounteralogortreeacrossthetrailitmaybeeasiertocrossataslightangleratherthanstraighton.Besureofyourgroundclearance.Ifyouonlyhave8ofclearanceyouwillnotbeabletocrossovera12log.Inthiscaseyoucouldbuildaramponbothsidesofthelogwithsmalllogsrocksordirt. 33THREEPOINTTURNFORTURNINGAROUNDONANARROWROADStep1Uselowrangeand1stgear.Pulluptotheedgeoftheroadandputthevehicleintoreverseandbackupthehill.Step2Usepowerasneededtogoupthebankhighenoughtoturnthefrontwheelshardinthedirectionyouwanttogo.Step3Drivebackontotheroadintheoppositedirection. 34THREEPOINTTURNFORTURNINGAROUNDONANARROWROADcontinuedUseextremecautionwiththismaneuver. 35ROUGHCOUNTRYDRIVINGSUMMARYUselowrange-4-wheeldriveandlowestgear.Iyouhaveamanualtransmissionstartthevehicleingearwithouttheclutchseepage12pressingthethrottlealittleasneeded.IyouhaveanautomatictransmissionremembertoSHIFTINTONEUTRALTOSHIFTTOLOWRANGE.Uselowrangeandyourlowestdrivegear.Usetheletootonthebrakeanrightootonthethrottle.Applythrottleonlyasneeded.Keepyourootoftheclutchatalltimes.Startandstopwithyourkey.Alwaysusecompressiongoingdownhill.Idleoverobstacles.Itmightbenecessarytousethethrottleslightlygoinguphill.Dontstraddlelargerocks.PutyourtireontopotherocksandcrawloverthemslowlyUsethrottleonlyasneeded.Maintainadequatespeed.Goingtooastof-roadcandamageyourvehicle.Driveslowly.Iyoustarttospinorslipgivealittlethrottleandturnthesteeringwheelslowly12turnbackandorth.Keepmovingonceyouarecommitted.Propermomentumandsmoothhandlingarethekey.KNOWYOURLIMITATIONSANDTHEVEHICLESLIMITATIONS 36TIRESAgoodradialATall-terrainorradialMSmudandsnowtireissuicientormosto-highwaydrivingcircumstances.Radialtiresareidealsincetheyprovidealargerootprintthanothertiresothesamesize.Thislargerareaocontactwillprovidemoretractiononroughterrain.IrecommendatirewithaCorDloadrange.Theseloadrangesindicateastrongersidewallconstructionwhicharerecommendedordrivinginroughterrain.TIREPRESSUREForon-highwayconditionsalwaysollowthemanuacturersrecommendedtirepressures.Whenyouventureo-roadhoweveryoumaywanttolowerthetirepressure.Lettingsomeairoutothetiresmakesthemsoterandexpandsthetireootprintorgreaterfotationresultinginmoretractionwhendrivingoverrocksorinsand.Lowertirepressurewillalsocushionthevehiclesride.Dierentconditionsmayrequiredierenttirepressuresdependingonyourvehicle.Idealairdownsituationsorrougho-roadtravelExtremeAirDownForTrailConditionIdealPressureEmergencyConditionsOnlyRockyterrainRubicon22to26lbs22to26lbsLoosedesertsand22to26lbs8to10IbsDeepmud22to24lbs10to12IbsDeepsnow26to28lbs8to10IbsButrememberthattoolittletirepressureespeciallywithstocktirescanresultinthetirebeingpushedootherimcausingittogofat.Assoonasyougetbackonsuracedroadsreturnyourtirestonormalairpressures.Dontguesscarryagoodqualitypressuregaugewithyou.Under-infatedtirescaninfuencevehiclehandlingtractionandtreadwear.Correctairinfationisvitaltoatireslongservicelie. 37TIREPRESSUREcontinuedDirectionaltiresoeramoreaggressivetreadandareusuallyusedinheavymudandsnowareas.ForgeneralusetheradialATallterraintiredoesanexcellentjob.Tiresonallourwheelsshouldalwaysbeothesamesizeandtype.Tohelpevenouttheweartiresshouldberotatedonaregularbasis.Tiresshouldbeinspectedperiodicallyorcutsbulgesoranyothersignsodamage.Repairsshouldbemadeonlybyauthorizedtirecenters.FlatTireTip-Yourtirehasbeenpushedawayromtherimandhasgonefatyoumaybeabletoreinfatethetire.Jackthewheelupandianairsourceisavailableuseittoreinfatethetire.Generallythiswillreseatthetireonthewheel.Acanoairandrepairavailableatautomotivepartsstoresisahandyitem.Becareulosharprocksorlimbsthatcouldpuncturethesidewalls.Carryaull-sizesparetireandwheel.REMEMBERTOREINFLATEYOURTIRESWHENYOUAREBACKONSOLIDGROUNDTIRERECOMMENDATIONSIn1978agroupoJeepenthusiastsandIwithveCJ-7scompletedarecord-breakingtripbeginningatthesoutherntipoSouthAmericaTierradelFuegoChileandendinginPrudhoeBayAlaska.OurveJeepswereequippedwithGoodyearRTtires31x11.50x15.Iput21000milesonmyJeepanddidnotexperienceafattirethroughouttheentiretrip.IhighlyrecommendtheGoodyearWranglerMTR.Itisagreatmulti-purposetirewiththree-plysidewallsandatreadtomatchanyterrain.IthasbeentestedandprovenontheRubiconTrail. 38GOODYEARTIRESA.WRANGLERMTRGoodyearslatestandgreatestof-roadtireisaggressiveenoughtotametheRubiconTrail.SomehavesaidtheRinthetirenamestandsorRubiconbecausethatwaswherethetirewasintroducedandshowcased.ItactuallystandsorMaximumTractionReinorced.ThisGoodyearmuscletirewasdesignedor4WDvehiclesthatworkontherocksbutitsaggressivestanceonthehighwaywillmakeitpopularortheeverydaydriver.Thetiresconstruction-threehighmoduluspolyesterpliesinthesidewallandahigh-techsilicacarbonblackcompound-makestheWranglerMTRssidewallpuncture-resistant.Aworkingtreadthatextendsdownthesidewallsprovidesaddedtractionofroad.B.WRANGLERATSTherstdualtractionlugchanneltireorpickuptrucksandSUVsofersexcellenttreadwearandof-roadtractionaswellasaquietrideonhighways.Thesechannelsaredesignedtopreventmudandsnowromstickinginthetreadgrooves.Thecenterlinebetweenthechannelsprovidessolidityorimprovednoisecharacteristics.Countlessbladesandnotchesoferimprovedwetsnowandof-roadperormance. 39GOODYEARTIREScontinuedC.WRANGLERGS-AThisasymmetrictireprovidesmoretreadontheoutsideshoulderorgreatercorneringpower.Hetytreadlugsandasquared-ofinsideshoulderdeliversimprovedtractionintherainandsnow.Deepwidegrovesinthecenteroferimprovedhandlingonwetroads.Reinorcedsidewallsandruggedtreadcompoundsprovidelongtirelie.D.WORKHORSEEXTRAGRIPRADIALAnaggressivetreadpatternwasdesignedtoprovidegreatergriponloosegravelandthebackroadsoarmsandindustrialworksites.TheWorkhorseExtraGripofersaddedtractionincommercialapplicationssuchasloggingorestryminingconstructionandgasoildrillingoperations.Adeepchanneledtreadpatternandaggressiveshouldernotchessupplyincreasedtractionwhenitsneededmost.Inthewinterstudscanbeinstalledorimprovedsnowandicetraction. 40WINCHINGIFYOUARESTUCKbeforeyoupulloutyourwinchlineanalyzethesituationanddeterminewhathasimmobilizedyourvehicle.Decidewhethertocontinueforwardorgoback.Ifyouareseverelyhunguponarockorstumpyoushouldconsiderjackingthevehicleupandputtingsomethingunderthetirestocleartheobstacle.Useadirectone-linepulltoatreeorlargerock.Ifyouarereallystuckusethepulleyorsnatchblockanddoublebacktothevehicle.Useyourtreestrapandclevispinmountedlowatthebaseofthetree.DONOTWRAPYOURWINCHLINEAROUNDTHETREEASITCOULDKILLTHETREE.Ifnecessaryyoucanwinchatanangle.Becautiousofcablebuildupononesideofthewinchdrum.Donottrytoguidethecablewhilewinchingasthiscouldresultinseriousinjury.Afteryouareclearoftheobstaclepullthecableoutandrewind.WHENEVERPOSSIBLEUSETHEPOWEROFYOURVEHICLEWITHTHEPOWEROFTHEWINCH.YOURCONTROLCABLEISLONGENOUGHTOREACHINTOTHEDRIVERSWINDOWOFTHEVEHICLE.MAKESUREYOUAREUSINGTHEVEHICLESPOWERANDTHEWINCHSPOWERGENTLYANDSMOOTHLY-NOJERKING.DONTDRIVEOVERTHEWINCHCABLE.Ifyouhavetwovehiclesandonewinch1.Connectthewinchhooktothevehiclethatisstuck.2.Putthevehiclethatisstuckintoitslowestgearrangeandgentlyapplypowertoassistthewinch.3.Setthebrakeontheanchorvehicletoholditinplaceorifnecessaryplacearockorloginfrontofwheels.4.Theanchorvehiclecouldalsobeputintoreversetogentlypullthestuckvehicle.Usingthistechniqueyouhavethepoweroftwovehiclesandthewinch.Ifyouhavetwovehiclesandbothareequippedwithwinchesyoucanusethepowerofbothwinches. 41BASICSIMPLEWINCHINGDirectpullwiththewinchengaged.Bothvehiclesshouldbein4WDlowrange.Putwinchingvehicleintoreversegearandslowlyapplypowerwhilewinching.Thestuckvehicleshouldbeinrstgearandgentlyapplyingpowerwhilebeingwinched.Whenhookingtoavehiclehooktoaproperlymountedtowhookortherame.DonothooktothebumperDoubleblockingusingasnatchblockorpulleyefectivelydoublesthecapacityoyourwinch.Usethistechniqueormoredificultsituations. 42WINCHINGACCESSORIESIstronglyrecommendawinchaccessorykitwhichcontainsasnatchblocksteelshackletreestrapandgloves. 43USINGYOURWINCHWINCHRATINGSTherstwraponawinchdrumistheamountothewinchrating.Anexampleothisisthatawinchratedat8000isonlyrated8000orthecablesrstwraparoundthedrum.Foreachadditionalwraparoundthedrumthewinchlosesapproximately1000opullingpower.Rememberbyusingthesnatchblockyouefectivelydoublethecapacityothewinch. 44USINGYOURWINCHcontinuedDirectlinepull 45LARGETREEACROSSROADExamplePuttowstraparoundrockortreeasshownwithpulley.Winchtreebackuntilyoucanpass. 46GETTINGBACKONTHEROADExampleVehicleofroodanddirectpullnotPossible.UseatreetreestrapandPulleyasshown. 47ALWAYSUSEATREESTRAPANDPLACELOWONTHETREEIavehiclerollsandyouareattemptingtorightitwithawinchdonthookontothehighsideotherameandattempttopullitupright.Wrapatowstraporeventhecableitselallthewayaroundthevehicleasshown.Thisefectivelymultipliesthetorqueothewinchandgivesmorepositivecontrolovertheoperation.Whenworkingwithabarewinchlinebecareulthatitisntlaidunprotectedoversharpobjectsonthevehiclesundercarriageorbody. 48PROPERWAYTOCONNECTTWOSTRAPSTOGETHERSNATCHUMSTRAPA20nylonropeorstrapwith20000ormorebreakingteststrengthisusedtogetastuckvehiclefreeinmudorsand.Ipersonallyrecommendusingonlystrapswithatleasta20000breakingteststrengthandonlystrapsconstructedwithouthooksloopsonlyandfromnon-stretchnylonstrap.Thepullingvehiclewillbackupwithslack2-3thenpullforwardwiththestuckvehicleapplyingpower.Thenylonstraptightensandpullsthevehiclefree.Asafewaytoconnecttwotowstrapstogether.A1hardwooddowel12longworksgreatforconnectingtwotowstraps.Astronglimbwillalsowork.Youcanalsosliptheloopendofatowstrapthroughthespringshackleandusethe1dowelorapieceofwoodtoholditseephoto.Neverconnecttwostrapswithaclevispin.Neverusetowstrapswithmetalhooks.Ifastrapbreaksitmaybecomeadeadlyprojectileseepage50.Generallyastuckvehiclecanbefreedwithonlyaslighttugbythepullingvehicle. 49SNATCHUMSTRAPcontinuedNOCautionBeextremelycarefuloftowstrapsropesandwinchcables.TheyhavebeenknowntobreakandbecomeVERYdangerousprojectiles.Besureeveryoneisatasafedistanceofatleast30ormoreawaywheneverthereisastrappingwinchingsituation.YESASHORTEASYPULLWILLGENERALLYFREEASTUCKVEHICLE. 50WHYWEDONTUSETOWSTRAPSWITHHOOKSORCONNECTTHEMTOGETHERWITHACLEVISPINTheclevispinisbeneaththeleftfronttire.Itwentthroughthebackofthevehicletheseatandthewindshieldnarrowlymissingthedriver.Neveruseatowstrapwithahookorconnecttwotowstrapswithaclevispin. 51WINCHINGSUMMARYALWAYSusegloveswhenwinching.Cablesoftendevelopburrsandcancauseinjuries.ALWAYSplaceajacketlargepieceofcanvastoweloranythingyouhaveoverthewinchcablewhilewinching.Thiswillactasaparachuteintheeventofacablebreaking.NEVERstandbyorstraddleawinchcablewhenthewinchisbeingused.ONLYhooktotheframeorspringshackleiftowhooksarenotavailable.Usecautionwhenyouhookontoavehicletoavoidapotentiallydangeroussituationordamagetothevehicle.NEVERjerkwiththewinchlineoruselikeatowstrap.DONTpullyourhookintotherolleronthewinch.Releasepowerapproximatelythreefeetfromthewinchandspoolingently.DONTtrytogetthewinchtospoolevenlywhilewinching.Youcanalwayspullthecableoutafteryouaredoneandrewinditneatly.DONTdriveoveryourwinchcable.DONTwrapyourwinchcablearoundsomethingthatwillkinkit.DONThookontoyourwinchcable.Hookingtoyourcablewillcutandweakenthecable.NEVERuseyourwinchtosupportorliftaperson.ALWAYSmakesurethereareatleastfvewrapsocableremainingonthedrumbeforewinching.ALWAYSkeepeveryoneasfarawayaspossiblefromcablewhenwinchingatleastaminimumof30ormore. 52WINCHINGSUMMARYcontinuedUseextremecautionwhenreelingthecablein.Keepyourhandsandfngersclear.Whenyouarefnishedwinchingandbegintoreelinthecableleaveapproximatelythreeeetocableandthewinchhookreetoconnecttothetowhookorbumper.Remembertodisengagethewinchanddisconnectthecontrolcablewhenyouaredone.Iyoudonothavealargetreetowinchtoloopyourtreestraportowstraplowaroundsmalltreesorheavybrush.NEVERWRAPYOURCABLEAROUNDATREEORHOOKONTOYOURWINCHCABLE.Hookingtoyourcablewillcutandweakenthecable.Wrappingyourcablearoundatreewilldamageorpossiblykillthetree.Thisisillegalinmanystatesandcouldleadtoalargefne. 53WHATTOTAKEFOROFF-HIGHWAYTRIPSCBradioandorcellularphoneAreamapsGPSifavailableAgoodrstaidkitShovelAxeorsawAgoodjackBasictools-plierswrenchesscrewdriversjumpercablesFireextinguisherFull-sizesparetireTirepressuregaugetirepumptirerepairkitorsmallcanoftiresealantairpressureRadiatorStopLeakTowropesnatchumstrapGlovesBalingwireandducttapeExtramotoroil1or2quartsExtragasolineenoughforround-tripFlashlightandextrabatteriesPlasticsheetortarp61x61SheltertentfoulweathergearSleepingbagsFoodlotsofwaterfortheamountoftimegone-canopenerpapertowelsandgarbagebagsDehydratedfoodswhichtakelittlespaceandlastalongtimeAgoodknifeMatcheskeptinaplasticbagsotheydontgetwetToiletpaperandziplocksfortissuedisposalWinchownersawinchkitincluding0treestrapaclevispinasnatchblockorpulleyandall4dowel12long 54ROADCOURTESYCourtesyiscontagious-Iyouarebeingovertakenbyanothervehiclepulloverandallowtheothervehicletopass.Vehiclesgoinguphillhavetheright-o-way.Onsteepinclineslossoclimbingmomentumcouldmeanalossotractionoranenginestallandcouldcauseadangeroussituation.Whenyouleaveyourvehicleparkcompletelyofothetrail.RemembertoTreadLightlyFour-wheelingtakesskillandgoodcommonsense.AlcoholanddrivingareNOTcompatibleatanytimeWerecommendyoujoinaourwheeldriveclub.TolocateaclubinyourareapleasecontactUnitedFourWheelDriveAssociationsPOBox316SwartzCreekMI48473Phone800-44-UFWDA800-448-3932Emailinouwda.orgWebsitewww.uwda.orgREPORTVIOLATIONSTakelicensenumbersopoachersorof-roaderswhoaretearingupthelandorlitteringandgivelicensenumberstoarangerorlawenorcementoficerassoonaspossible. 55HELPFULHINTSIyouhaveabrokenradiatorandnoStopLeakpinchofthetubesthatareleakingandputpepperintheradiator.Iyoudonthaveanypeppertryoneortworaweggs.Ithesedontworkyoucanuseahandulortwoodrycowmanure.Freezingiceteaorwaterinonegallonplasticjugskeepsthecontentsoyouricechestcold.Itwillalsoprovidearereshingcolddrinkasitthaws.SurvivalTipsIyoubreakdownbecalmandstaywithyourvehicle.UseyourCBradioorcellularphonetosummonhelp.Remembertoprotectyourselromtheelements.Avoidrunningyourvehiclesbatterydown.Iyouarecarryingatleastbasicsurvivalgearyoushouldbeabletoholdoutuntilhelparrives.Asmentionedearlieralwaystellsomeonewhereyouaregoingandwhenyouexpecttobeback. 56OFF-HIGHWAYDRIVINGTIPSSUMMARYKNOWYOURLIMITSANDTHEVEHICLESLIMITS.Everyoneinthevehicleshouldwearseatbeltsatalltimes.Dontallowanyonetostandinamovingvehicle.Lookoveryourhoodandcontinuouslyanalyzeandmemorizethetrailaheadoyouwhiledrivingit.Rememberslowandeasy-speedandpowerarenotrequiredofroad.Dontspinyourwheelsorapplytoomuchpower.Alwayskeepyourwheelsontheground-avoidrontendchatter.Iyourwheelsstarttospinslowlymovethesteeringwheelbackandorth12turn.Alwayskeepadequateorwardmomentumeveniyouareonlycrawling.Smootheasypowerisbetterthantoomuchpower.Driveslowandinasaecommonsensemanner.Dontendangeryourseloryourpassengers.Keeparmsandlegsinthevehicle.Dontlitter-carryalitterbagwithyou.Leaveacleantrailandagoodimageoof-roadenthusiasts.Enjoytheheritageandbackcountryournationhastoofer.Iyoudriveyourvehicleslowandeasyyoucanenjoythemanymilesoscenerythatwouldnormallynotbeseenbythegeneralpublic. 57OFF-HIGHWAYDRIVINGTIPSSUMMARYcontinuedIhavesaidmanytimesthatonceyouhavemasteredof-roaddrivingyoucandriveholdingahalcupocofeeorwaterandneverspilladrop.Visualizehavingacrateoraweggsinthebackoyourvehiclewithyourgoalbeingnottobreakany.Thisisthewayyouwanttodriveinroughcountry.Respecttherightsandpropertyoothers.Alwaysgetpermissionbeoreyouenterprivatelandsandleavegatesasyoundthem.GrandCherokeecrossingalogdeck.SlowandEasy 58THEJEEPJAMBOREEUSASTORYIn1953MarkA.SmithandagroupoGeorgetownCaliorniaRotariansorganizedtheJeepersJamboreeovertheruggedRubiconTrailasamethodorpromotingtourismintheirremoteSierraNevadaoothillstown.ThiswasthemodestbeginningoJeepJamboreeUSAaseriesoof-roadadventuresorJeepownerswhichhasgrowntospanthecountry.Eachyearover7500JeepenthusiastslearnabouttheirowncapabilitiesaswellasthoseotheirJeepvehicleswhileexploringAmericasmagnicentbackcountry.FromthewoodedorestsoMainetoUtahspainteddesertstotheultimatechallengeoferedbythemightyRubiconTrailitselJeepJamboreeUSAofersanunparalleledrangeoexpertlyguidedof-roadexperiencestoJeepenthusiasts.TheJamboreeseasonrunsFebruarythroughOctobereaturingover35tripsovaryingdificultiesrangingrommildtrailrunssuitableorcuriousrst-timerstoobstacle-richrouteswhichchallengeevenveteranof-roaders.FormoreinormationpleasecontactJeepJamboreeUSA2776SourdoughFlatGeorgetownCA95634Ph530333-4777Fax530333-2844Emailjeepjamjeepjam.comWebsitewww.jeepjamboreeusa.comPUBLICLANDSAREFORALLTOUSEANDENJOY 59THEJEEPJAMBOREEUSASTORYcontinuedTypicalterrainonaJeepJamboree.GrandCherokee 60THEJEEPJAMBOREEUSASTORYcontinuedJeepWranglerTJontheRubiconTrailduringaJeepJamboree.TerrainwillvaryonJeepJamborees. 61TRAILRATINGSFOROFF-ROADROUTESTrailsareratedrom1easiestto10mostdificult.Theratingisortheoveralltrail-notjust1or2roughspots.Raincanincreaseatrailratingby2-3points.Rating1-3Maynotrequire4WD.Couldbedirtmudrocksorotherobstacles.Rating4-7Moderatedemandingtrailswhen4WDisrequired.Couldincludeboulderssteephillsandwatercrossings. 62TRAILRATINGSFOROFF-ROADROUTEScontinuedRating8-9Moredificulttrailswithmanyobstaclesincludingrockclimbingsteephillsanddeepmud.Goodchanceogettingstuck.Rating10Thetoughest.Lotsorockcrawlingandtrailsthatcouldcausevehicledamage.Dontletthetrailratingsintimidateyou.Itispossibleoradriverwithaproperlyequipped4WDvehicletostartoutonhigherratedtrails.Pleasenotethatthehigherratedtrailshavethepotentialtocausevehiculardamage. 63TRAININGSPECIALFORCES-U.S.ARMYBYMARKA.SMITHOFF-ROADINGINC.TrainingSpecialForcesU.S.Armyinsevereof-roaddrivingconditions. 64TRAININGSPECIALFORCES-U.S.ARMYBYMARKA.SMITHOFF-ROADINGINC.continued 65LOSANGELESCOUNTYSHERIFFSTRAININGBYMARKA.SMITHOFF-ROADINGINC.In1985MarkA.SmithworkingwithDeputySteveBellinootheLosAngelesCountySherifsDepartmentdevelopedandimplementedaspecial4WDtrainingprogramtoteachlawenorcementoficersintheapplicationo4WDvehiclesandequipment.CurrentlyweconductourcoursesannuallywiththeLosAngelesCountySherifsDepartment.Thecourseisopentoalllawenorcementagenciesthroughoutthecountry.Wehavetrainedover3500FederalStateandlocallawenorcementoficersthroughouttheUnitedStates.Thisprogramistheonlycertiedlawenorcement4WDtrainingintheUnitedStates.ForadditionalinormationonthisprogrampleasecontactLosAngelesCountySherifsDepartmentAdvancedTrainingBureau11515SouthColimaRoadBig.F103WhittierCA90604Phone562-946-7828E-mailmgricharlasd.org 66EXPEDICIONDELASAMERICASCROSSINGTHEDARIENGAPIn1979MarkA.SmithledanexpeditiontomakeatrekromTierradelFuegothesouthernmosttipoSouthAmericatotheicywatersoPrudhoeBayAlaskaatthetopotheNorthAmericancontinent.TheExpediciondelasAmericasrequired120daystocompleteandcoveredover20000milesencompassingthemostwidelydivergenttypesoterrainandclimaticconditionsimaginable.ByarthemostchallengingsegmentothistripwasourtraverseotheDarienGap.TheDarienGapisanalmostincomprehensiblydense250milelongstretchojunglesandswampsalongtheborderoPanamaandColumbia.Over400oannualrainallintheareacreatesstaggeringvegetationgrowthmakingitvirtuallyimpassibletocutandmaintainevenrudimentaryootpaths.Fueledbythisconstantsupplyowatercertaintypesovinesintheregionhavebeenoundtogrowatratesouptothreeeetpermonth.Onedayweworked9hoursandwentonly500eet.ThereareotherhazardstobeoundintheDarienaswell.Malariaandothertropicaldiseasesarecommon.Over100speciesosnakesmorethan60othempoisonouscalltheDarienhome.Scorpionsrangingromhalaninchtosixinchesinlengthaswellasspidersoeverysizeanddescriptionareplentiulaswell.PlansshowtheintendedrouteothePanAmericanHighwaypassingthroughtheDarienbutthesheerdificultyandpotentialexpenseoattemptingtobreachtheDarienwithpavedroadshaspreventedeithergovernmentromattemptingtocompletetheproject.TherstmoderncrossingotheDarienwasaccomplishedataheavycostbyacombinedBritishandColombianmilitaryunitin1972.250BritishArmysoldiersandacomplimentoColombianMarinessupportedbytwovehiclessucceededincrossingtheDariensorbiddingterrainin100dayshowevereightotheMarinesdiedduringarivercrossingalongtheroute. 67EXPEDICIONDELASAMERICASCROSSINGTHEDARIENGAPcontinuedOurExpedicionteamconsistedo16NorthAmericansandthreeColombians.LocalChocoIndianssometimesasmanyas25assistedinguidingthegroupandcuttingroughtrailswithmachetes.FiveJeepCJ-7scarriedusthroughtheDarien.Theseunbelievablyruggedvehicleswereour-speedmodelsequippedwithT-18transmissionsTraclokinthereardierentials31x1050x15GoodyearATtiresRamseywinchesbrushguardsandextraskidplates.AlthoughourJeepswereincrediblycapablevehiclesourChocoIndianriendsturnedouttobeinvaluableindevisingmethodstocrossterrainevenaCJ-7couldntmaster.FacedwithawiderivercrossingtheChocosoundandcutdownbalsawoodtreesfoatedthemdownstreamtoourlocationandabricatedaratcapableocarryingaJeepanditscrewallinthreehours.Ater30daysand103milesourgroupemergedsaelyromtheDarienGaplledwithrespectoroneothewildestmostuntamedspotsontheplanet.Congratulatorynote-J.MastersMinistryoDeenseEngland1979Wouldyoupass...ouradmirationortheeatachievedbytheConquistadorsmembersoSmithsExpediciondelasAmericas.Webelongtoaveryselectgroupopeople.Theyhavemyadmirationgoodwishesalongwithaeelingogoodellowship.A27minutedocumentaryothisexpeditionisavailableor9.95plusshippingandhandling.ContactJeepJamboreeUSA2776SourdoughFlatGeorgetownCA95634530-333-4777ext.12 68EXPEDICIONDELASAMERICASCROSSINGTHEDARIENGAPcontinuedObstaclestoclearTypicalJungle-TheDariengrowsattherateof3permonthbothfromthegroundupandthetopdown 69EXPEDICIONDELASAMERICASCROSSINGTHEDARIENGAPcontinuedFollowinganIndianfootpathTypicaldayintheDarien 70EXPEDICIONDELASAMERICASCROSSINGTHEDARIENGAPcontinuedMudswampsintheDarienUsingtwowinchestohelpaJeepupan85hill 71EXPEDICIONDELASAMERICASCROSSINGTHEDARIENGAPcontinuedPreparingtowinchonamuddywashoutTypicalwinchingsituation 72EXPEDICIONDELASAMERICASCROSSINGTHEDARIENGAPcontinuedUsingbridgingladdersforcrossingravinesorclimbingsteepbanksWinchingupasteepinclinewenamedRamseyRavine.Thisinvolvedclimbingaslopeofupto85degreesforover150. 73SPECIALIZEDTRAININGAVAILABLESpecialized4WDtrainingisavailablebysomeothemostexperiencedof-roaddriversintheworld.Atrainingprogramcanbetailoredtotyourneeds.Corporationslawenorcementgroupsandindividualsarewelcome.Specialtraininginwinchingisalsoavailable.4WDcoursescanalsobedesignedandconstructed.MarkA.SmithOf-RoadingInc.hasbuiltoveronehundred4WDcoursesthroughouttheUnitedStatesandoverseas.Wedesignedandbuiltthe4WDtestsectionattheChryslerProvingGroundsinChelseaMichigan.TrainingDeltaForcewithuseobridgingladdersthatwerespecicallydesignedanddevelopedortheExpediciondelasAmericasForadditionalinformationpleasecontactMarkA.SmithOf-RoadingInc.2776SourdoughFlatGeorgetownCA95634Ph530-333-4777ext.13Fax530-333-2844Emailpearsejeepjam.com 74HELPINGYOUTOENJOYTHE4WDEXPERIENCE 75HELPINGYOUTOENJOYTHE4WDEXPERIENCEMarkASmithOfRoadingInc.JeepJamboreeUSA2776SourdoughFlatGeorgetownCA95634phone530-333-4777fax530-333-2844emailpearsejeepjam.comwebsitewww.jeepjamboreeusa.comJeepwebsitewww.jeep.comGoodyear1144EastMarketStreetAkronOH44316e-mailconsumer_relationsgoodyear.comwebsitewww.goodyeartires.com 76ABOUTTHEAUTHOROtenreerredtoastheatheromodernour-wheelingMarkA.Smithshareshisdecadesoexperienceandinnovationtoteachthebasicsosaecommonsenseenvironmentallyconscientiousofhighwaydrivinginthishandygloveboxsizedvolume.In1953asawaytoattracttourismtotheirtinyCaliorniamountaintownSmithandagroupolocalboostersbegantheJeepersJamboreeovertheRubiconTrailanannualtripwhichwouldgainsuchnotorietyinour-wheelingcirclesastobecomethestandardbywhichallotherof-roadroutesinNorthAmericawouldbejudged.Lookingorevengreateradventurein1979SmithorganizedandledtheExpediciondelasAmericasa120-day20000mileof-roadjourneyromthesouthernmosttipoSouthAmericaatTierradelFuegotoPrudhoeBayAlaskaabovetheArcticCircle.ThisincredibletripeaturedatraverseothevirtuallyimpassableDarienGapa103milestretchodensehostilejunglewhichtook30daystocross.Seekingawaytosharehisloveoof-roadingandtheexplorationoAmericasgrandbackcountrywiththepublicSmithoundedJeepJamboreeU.S.A.in1982.JeepJamboreeU.S.A.ofersguidedamilyorientedof-roadadventuresopentoanyJeepowner.Over7500Jeepenthusiastsparticipateinthe35JeepJamboreesheldeachyearinlocationsasdiverseastheevergreenorestsoMaineandthepainteddesertsoUtah.ThisinvolvementwiththeJeepbrandbroughtSmithinclosercontactwiththemanuactureraswellandsince1982hehasworkedasaconsultanttotheJeepbrandotheChryslerCorporation.In1986theUnitedFourWheelDriveAssociationrecognizedSmithsimpressiveaccomplishmentsnaminghimFourWheelerotheDecade.ThejunglesoMadagascarwerethenextdestinationortheglobetrottingSmithasin1987heledCamelTrophyinwhatisperhapsthetoughestadventurecompetitionintheworld. 77ABOUTTHEAUTHORcontinuedSmithspioneeringspiritwasnextrecognizedbytheexclusiveExplorersCluboNewYorkwhichinductedhimasamemberin1989.Theo-roadprowessomanyoAmericaslaw-enorcementandmilitarypersonnelmaybeattributedtoSmithaswell.Sincebeginningo-roadtrainingortheLosAngelesCountySherisDepartmentin1984hehastrainedover3500lawenorcementoicersromover30agenciesincludingtheRoyalCanadianMountedPolice.OngoingtrainingotheeliteoAmericasmilitarytheU.S.ArmySpecialForcesincludingDeltaForcecontinuesinremotesometimesexoticlocationsaswell.Over100o-roaddemonstrationcourseshavebeenbuiltbythismemberotheO-RoadHalloFameincludingtheour-wheeldrivetestacilityattheChryslerProvingGroundsatChelsea.Michiganaswellasbuildingasevereo-roadcourseattheMarinebaseinQuanticoVirginiaortheUSMCandtheDepartmentotheArmy.Markhasbeenano-roadconsultanttoJeepCorp.since1984workingwithmarketingengineeringpublicrelationsandinternationaloperations.MarkisaliememberotheNationalRifeAssociation.InJuneo2011MarkwashonoredbyaresolutionromtheCaliorniaStateSenaterecognizinghissignicantcontributionstothesportooroadexplorationandthepromotionopreservationotheOldRubiconTrail.FormoreaboutthelieoMarkA.SmithreadhisbookDrivenbyADreamavailableon-lineatwww.jeepjamboreeusa.com.Opinionsexpressedbytheauthordonotnecessarilyrefecttheviewsothepersonscorporationsoragenciesmentionedinthispublication. 78MarkA.SmithsGuidetoSaeCommonSenseOf-RoadDrivingOtenreerredtoastheatheromodernour-wheelingMarkA.Smithshareshisdecadesoexperienceandinnovationtoteachthebasicsosaecommonsenseenvironmentallyconscientiousof-highwaydrivinginthishandygloveboxsizedbooklet.2000MarkA.SmithOf-RoadingInc.RevisedJanuary2012